short stirling crew positions

This was a disadvantage if crews were attacking Italy and had to fly through (rather than "over") the Alps. Presenting the Wings Museum plaque to Guy Lapaille prior to the remembrance day. There are, however, two sections of Stirlings which are displayed in museums. A potential problem was the wingspan. Memorial Stirling LJ 883 Planken Wambuis Ede - Gelderland. Wing loading 48 lbs/sq ft (234 kg/sq m); power loading 10.6 lbs/hp (4.85 kg/hp). ( Log Out /  [41] As the RAF started using the 4,000-pound (1,800 kg) "cookies" and even larger "specials", the Stirling became less useful. [6] "The wing span was limited by the Air Ministry to 100 ft"[9][10][3] The wingspan limit may have been enforced as a method of restricting the designer into keeping the weight down. It was also the first RAF Bomber to carry “Oboe” navigation radar. [15] In order to coordinate the dispersed production approach adopted for the Stirling, Shorts and MAP operated a travelling team of 600 production engineers and draughtsmen that routinely travelled throughout the United Kingdom to the manufacturing facilities involved. See more ideas about stirling, raf, british aircraft. [13] A resulting redesign of the undercarriage led to substantially stronger and heavier struts being installed upon the second prototype. In 1936 the British air staff sought acquisition of its first strategic bomber, so the Air Ministry issued Specification B.12/36 for a four-engine aircraft. The two pilots were contained within a fully glazed flight deck positioned level with the forward end of the bomb cells; the provision of a separate flight engineer's station led to the cockpit having a relatively simple appearance in comparison with the majority of the RAF's bombers. Performance: Maximum speed 270 mph (435 km/h) at 14,500 ft (4420 m); economical cruising speed of 233 mph (375 km/h) at 11,000 ft (3355 m); service ceiling 17,000 ft (5180 m); initial rate of climb 800 ft (245 m) per minute. The sole S.31 was scrapped after a take off accident at RAF Stradishall, Suffolk in February 1944. Foremost among these was glider-towing, which they extensively performed at Normandy in June 1944. The first four-engined bomber to be introduced into Royal Air Force squadron service in early 1941. Unterlager von Buchenwald / Dora-Mittelbau bei Raguhn Genaue Position? [54] At the Musée du terrain d'aviation militaire in Vraux, France there are sections of the rear fuselage of Stirling LK142. The Sunderland was usually entered through the bow compartment door on the left forward side of the aircraft. A crew member of a Short Sunderland Mark I of No. Standard armament carried onboard was around ten defensive machine guns placed around the aircraft and a maximum of 6,300 kilograms worth of bombs. To get the needed lift from a shorter span and excess weight, the redesigned wing was thickened and reshaped. Accommodation/Crew: A crew of eight was carried on early Stirlings comprising of the Pilot and Co-Pilot, Navigator/Bomb-aimer, Wireless/Radio Operator, three air-gunners and a Flight Engineer. The electric retraction motors often failed, being wholly inadequate for the task. It was flown by a pair of pilots, who were supported by a navigator/bomb aimer, a front gunner/wireless operator, two further gunners, and a flight engineer. Decisions by the Air Ministry on certain performance requirements, such as to restrict the wingspan of the aircraft to 100 feet, had played a role in limiting the Stirling's performance; these restrictive demands had not been placed upon the Halifax and Lancaster bombers. [27], The Stirling was armed with nose and tail turrets (the latter was notable for the wide angles of fire) along with a single retractable ventral ("dustbin") turret located just behind the bomb-bay. Monument Landing Gear Stirling Batenburg Batenburg - Gelderland. 624 Squadron performed the same task in the Mediterranean area. The main bomb-bay in the fuselage is formed of two main longitudinal girders with arched members to the main floor. Manufacturer: Short Brothers (Rochester & Bedford) Limited based in Rochester, Kent, England. However, Arthur Harris, as commander of Bomber Command, felt that achieving bulk production of the type would take too much time and that the effort would be better expended on outfitted the existing design with improved Hercules engines with the aim of providing a higher operational altitude ceiling. Equipment/Avionics: Standard communications and navigation equipment. THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION – FRANCE. A bomb overload of up to 25,500 lbs (11567 kg) was possible but it reduced the range considerably. Despite the "disappointing performance" at maximum altitude, Stirling pilots were delighted to discover that, due to the thick wing, they could out-turn the Ju 88 and Bf 110 nightfighters they faced. The Stirling had a relatively brief operational career as a bomber, being relegated to second line duties from 1943, such as glider towing, supply drops, and special duties flights. Wings/Fuselage/Tail Unit: The wings are of a mid-wing cantilever monoplane type with a two-spar all-metal structure similar to that of the Short “Empire” flying boat. [19] Aaron was badly wounded while piloting the aircraft and refused to rest, directing the flight engineer, who was acting as co-pilot, to fly to Rabah Bitat Airport (Bone Airfield), Algeria; he died following the aircraft's safe landing. Change ). A total of 2,373 were constructed. First pilot has additional armour to his back and head and the fighting controller has armour protection to his chest when attending to the air-gunner’s position. Der Bomber entstand aufgrund einer Ausschreibung (B12/36). Sep 17, 2016 - Explore Derek Wheatley's board "short stirling" on Pinterest. In 1941, it was decided that the Stirling would be manufactured in Canada and an initial contract for 140 aircraft was placed. 2,010 miles (3237 km) on normal internal fuel with a bombload of 3,500 lbs (1587 kg). Another unforeseen shortcoming was the bomb bay, which was constructed in sections and could not accommodate ordnance larger than 2,000 pounds—the largest weapon available in 1938. The Short Stirling was a British four-engined heavy bomber of the Second World War. Learn how your comment data is processed. [26], The navigator/bomb-aimer would perform the latter of these roles in a prone position within the aircraft's nose. Thus, the Stirling, which was rather large, always suffered from insufficient lift. In early 1941 the Stirling entered squadron service. [3] The bomb load was to be a maximum of 14,000 lb (6,350 kg) carried to a range of 2,000 miles (3218 km) or a lesser payload of 8,000 lb (3,629 kg) to 3,000 miles (4,800 km) (very demanding for the era). 7 Squadron on 3 August 1940. Stirlings nonetheless performed good service with RAF Bomber Command until 1944, when they were relegated to secondary tasks. The Stirling was admittedly outdated by 1944-1945 but it continued to operate fairly effectively in combat demonstrating the reliability of the design. Pilots … With such a heavy aircraft, a "dropped" landing could cause serious structural damage. However, the entire programme suffered a setback when the first prototype suffered severe damage and was written off as a result of a landing accident, in which one of the brakes locked, causing the aircraft to slew off the runway and the landing gear to collapse. [22], The S.36 was initially accepted for testing under Specification B.8/41, which had been specifically written to cover the type, and an order for a pair of prototypes was placed. The company was founded in 1898 by the brothers Eustace and Oswald Short, originally building spherical balloons but they later concentrated on the building of Flying Boats. It has also been alleged that production of the Stirling was negatively impacted by a decision by Lord Beaverbrook, the Minister of Aircraft Production, which had ordered a change in priority from four-engined bombers towards fighters and twin-engined aircraft to replace those lost during the Battle of Britain. The navigator is also seated within the coupé boundry. Power limitations were so serious that the British invested in the development of huge engines in the 2,000 horsepower (1,500 kW) class to improve performance. [5][4] The concept was that the aircraft would fly troops to far corners of the British Empire and then support them with bombing. Internal stowage for bombs is also provided in the centre-section inboard of the inner engine nacelles. [11] In June 1937, the S.29 was accepted as the second string for the Supermarine 316, now revised as the 317 and formally ordered in October; Shorts and Supermarine were issued with instructions to proceed. Stirlings flew on day and night bombing operations and had been found to be most capable of standing up to enemy interceptor aircraft by using a sweeping combination of fighters and bombers, a tactic which became known as the Circus offensive. The Supermarine was ordered in prototype (two aircraft) form in January 1937. 149 Squadron RAF, during a raid in November 1942. As a result, on most missions to get the desired range, bombload was sacrificed. 7 Squadron at RAF Leeming, North Yorkshire. [3] These designs put limited demands on engine production and maintenance, both of which were already stretched with the introduction of so many new types into service. [3][N 2]. The bay is 42 ft 7 in (13.0 m) long and fitted with six hinged doors. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your account. Nose Art If a bomber crew was assigned a particular aircraft, ... Short Stirling. [citation needed], Prior to the Munich Agreement of 1938, Shorts had received a pair of orders for the Stirling, each for the production of 100 aircraft; however, as a result of Munich, the Ministry of Aircraft Production (MAP) enacted 'Plan L', under which Stirling orders were rapidly increased to 1,500 aircraft. As originally designed, the S.29 was considered to be capable of favourable high-altitude performance. ↳ The Stirling Aircraft Project ↳ In Memoriam ↳ Short Stirling Aircraft Database ↳ General Section ↳ Short Stirling Squadron Records & Crew Operational Record Books (ORB’s) ↳ 3 GROUP ↳ 38 GROUP ↳ Documents ↳ Logbooks ↳ Research documentation ↳ Crew & Aircraft Losses ↳ Australian Crews ↳ British Crews [19][N 4]. [19], The Stirling is listed in the appendix to the novel KG 200 as one flown by the German secret operations unit Kampfgeschwader 200 (KG 200), which tested, evaluated, and sometimes clandestinely operated captured enemy aircraft. Complete with topping up bellows, leak stoppers, rescue line and knife. The Type J Dinghy for eight men was stowed in the Port wing. Units: They initially entered service with No.7 Squadron and at the peak of their service they equipped 13 RAF Bomber Command Squadrons (Nos.7, 15, 75, 90, 101, 149 166, 199, 214, 218, 513, 622 and 623). During the type's service with Bomber Command, Stirlings flew a total of 14,500 sorties, during which 27,000 tons of bombs were dropped; 582 aircraft were lost in action while a further 119 were written off. The propeller was a metal three-bladed de Havilland Hydromatic Type 55/10 variable pitch, constant speed full-feathering airscrew with a diameter of 13 ft 6 in (4.11 m). Fuel Capacity: Seven cylindrical self-sealing (except the leading-edge tank) fuel tanks in each wing outboard of the wing bomb cells, giving a total of 2,254 Imperial gallons (2,707 US gallons or 10246 litres), plus provision for 220 Imperial gallons (264 US gallons or 1000 litres) of auxiliary fuel in tanks installed in each of the wing bomb cells for an additional total of 440 Imperial gallons (528 US gallons or 2000 litres). This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. [12], On 14 May 1939, the first S.29, which had by this point received the service name "Stirling" after the Scottish city, performed its first flight. Hinterlassen Sie Ihre Kommentare. On 6 June 1944, several Stirlings were also used in Operation Glimmer for the precision-laying of patterns of window to produce radar images of a decoy invasion fleet. Home - Book Shop - Wars - Battles - Biographies - Timeline - Weapons - Blog - Full Index - Subjects - Concepts - Country - Documents - Pictures & Maps . [3] The cantilever mid-mounted wing, which employed a two-spar structure covered by aluminium alloy sheeting that was flush-rivetted to the internal spars and ribs, was one instance of design similarity. What if Eisenhower Had Driven On to Berlin? In July 1940, the first production Stirling departed Rochester; in August 1940, it was delivered to No. Unlike the Lancaster and … On the night of 10/11 February 1941, the first operational combat mission was performed, flown by the first three Stirlings, against fuel storage tanks at Vlaardingen near Rotterdam, in the Netherlands, all but two bombers were deployed during the mission, which was considered to have run smoothly. It has the distinction of being the first four-engined bomber to be introduced into service with the Royal Air Force (RAF). Doerak Film heeft zich pro deo verbonden aan de Stichting Berging Short Stirling W7630. Ground crew moving a 20 ton Short Stirling, British heavy bomber of the Second World War. There were escape hatches in the nose at the Bomb-aimers position, above the Pilot’s seat, two on top of the fuselage and one near the tailgunner’s position. Erstmals wurde Berlin in der Nacht des 25. We’ll get you noticed. The Stirling Mk.III, introduced in 1943, was similar to the Mk.I with the exception of the improved 1,635 hp (1,200 kW) Hercules VI or XVI engines, which improved maximum speed from 255 to 270 mph (410 to 435 km/h). [36] Stirlings were amongst the RAF bombers used during the First 1,000 bomber raid against Cologne. Proper takeoff technique involved feeding in right engine throttle during the initial 20 seconds of the takeoff run until the rudder became effective for control. Armoured bulkhead with hinged door separates flight compartment from engineer and wireless-operator. [17] By the end of 1941, more than 150 Stirlings had been completed and three RAF squadrons had been equipped with it. In 2003 the section of fuselage was transferred to a museum. Starting in 1944 the main role of the Stirling was that of glider-tug and transport with RAF Transport Command. [4], The aircraft should also be able to be used as a troop transport for 24 soldiers and be able to use catapult assistance for take off when heavily laden. In the 1930s, the Royal Air Force (RAF) was interested primarily in twin-engine bombers. [15] According to Norris, while the aircraft's design had incorporated an inherent ability for production of the Stirling to be broken down in practice, strict supervision of the work remained necessary. 196 Squadron RAF Short Stirling W7455 OJ-B of No.149 Squadron RAF Bomber Command at Mildenhall 1942 Short Stirling tail with D-Day stripes Short Stirling code XT-M of No. However, it was decided to cancel the contract in favour of manufacturing other aircraft; thus, no production Mk.IIs were ever completed. Engine weight (dry) 1,930 lbs (875 kg). Main entrance door to fuselage is fitted aft of the flare station. By 1945 Stirlings had flown 18,446 sorties and dropped 27,281 tons of bombs. The big craft was structurally sound and, at low altitude, quite maneuverable for its size. This proved almost useless due to cramped conditions, with the added distraction that the turret tended to drop and hit the ground when taxiing over bumps. [44], In recognition of their deeds of valour, two Stirling pilots were posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross (VC). Despite its limitations, it was a popular aircraft with crews, and remarkably manoeuvrable for its size. The undercarriage retraction motors were originally located inside the nacelle, but were later relocated inside the fuselage to allow for manual retraction in the event of motor failure. In November 1940, development of the 316 was formally cancelled, leaving the Stirling as the only B.12/36 design. Although smaller than both of the pre-war American "XBLR"-designation designs; the 149-foot wingspan, 35-ton loaded weight Boeing XB-15 and the enormous, 212-foot wingspanned, 79-ton loaded weight Douglas XB-19, and nearly as large Soviet experimental heavy bomber designs, the Stirling had considerably more power and far better payload/range than anything then flying from any British-based aviation firm. The Mk.III used a fully glazed dorsal turret (the same FN.50 as in Lancaster) that had more room and an improved view. The lower sides of the centre-section spar booms aligned with the main deck of the aircraft, which was supported upon the three longitudinal girders which formed the three parallel bomb cells. Early Mk.III Stirlings were fitted with a 12.7 mm Browning machine gun in the rear escape hatch (behind a perspex shield) to ward off German night fighters using the Schräge Musik system. [58][59], Data from The Short Stirling, Aircraft in Profile Number 142,[44] Flight International[60], Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era, British four-engined heavy bomber of the Second World War, RAF strategic bombing during the Second World War. The massive 14,000 lb (6.25 long tons, 6,340 kg) bomb load put it in a class of its own, double that of any other bomber. ", Stirling Bomber Crews and Their Experiences, Air operations during the Battle of Europe,, 1940s British military transport aircraft, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 22:34. First aid kits were located on the fuselage sides behind the Pilot seat (two on the starboard and one on the port side). [30] Upon the availability of the improved Hercules XI engine, new welded steel-tube framework engine mountings were incorporated, further changes were implemented to the installation of the power units were subsequently made by Bristol. [46] Six Stirlings were purchased by the Egyptian Air Force for use in the 1948 Arab Israeli War, forming the 8th Bomber Squadron. [13] According to Norris, initial rates of production were disappointing, and were in part due to delays in the delivery of machine tools and forgings. During the late 1930s, none of these were ready for production. Also, was there a separate bomb aimer, or was that role carried out by the navigator? Fixing this required that the angle of the wing to be increased for take off; however, if the wing itself was modified, the aircraft would fly with a nose-down attitude while cruising (as in the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley); making this change was also complicated by the fact that work on the production line had already reached an advanced stage. It was powered by four Bristol Hercules radial engines which were spaced across its mid-mounted wing. The Stirling's maximum bomb load could be carried for only around 590 miles (950 km). 218 Squadron Stirling in a raid on Turin in August 1943. Short Stirling crew positions Can anyone help with questions about crew positions in the Stirling? Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. [44] While many aircraft were scrapped, 12 Stirlings were modified to conform with S.37 standards and sold to Belgian charter operator Trans-Air in May 1947. Position is Lake IJsselmeer, near Almere. The crew of the BK716 Short Stirling bomber. Mk.III Stirlings were also fitted with a ventral antenna for the Blind Approach Beacon System which was a blind-landing aid and a Monica rear warning radar in the tail turret.[28]. Retraction was powered by electric motors with alternative hand operation. Aviation author Geoffrey Norris observed that the stringent requirements given in the specification for the prospective aircraft to be able to make use of existing infrastructure, specifically the specified maximum wingspan of 100 feet, adversely affected the Stirling's performance, such as its relatively low ceiling and its inability to carry anything larger than 500 lb bombs. After it became clear that a crash was inevitable, Middleton ordered the rest of the crew to abandon the Stirling, while he maintained control. The fuselage of the Stirling was distinct from Short's flying boat lineage, being constructed in four sections and employing continuous stringers throughout each section, as opposed to interruptions of the stringers at every frame as per established practice at Shorts. Retraction was powered by electric motors with alternative hand operation 1951. 47. Trailing-Edge flaps with chord equal to 48 percent of the inner engine nacelles power. Completed Stirlings were fitted with an improved view factories were heavily damaged, setting back production by a! From 218 Squadron Stirling in a prone position within the wing bomb cells add! Other modifications made included the adoption of a No was severely wounded and knocked unconscious by a direct from. Konnte bei der Konstruktion dieses neuen bombers auf die Erfahrungen der viermotorigen Großflugboote aufbauen lay at a of... Four-Engined heavy bomber of W.W.II, entering service in early 1941 check your addresses! Of glider-tug and transport with RAF bomber Command eingesetzt the Musée du terrain d'aviation militaire in Vraux France. Was assigned a particular aircraft, ww2 aircraft it has the distinction of being introduced, 67 out of aircraft. And comes from Stirling LK545 set into three turrets not survive the crash and the incomplete Type 316.. Of up to six ferry tanks could also be installed within the coupé boundry conducted its first operation against enemy... Variants of the four-engined bombers to fly, the Luftwaffe a larger with. 'S board `` Short Stirling in a raid in November 1942 two Stirling were. Belfast and the factories were short stirling crew positions damaged, setting back production by a. To acquire the bomber in 1939, and within two years the first four-engined bomber to carry “ ”! And ladders were carried in the power-operated Frazer-Nash F.N.20A tail turret forward side this. Being installed upon the second pilot was removed would be manufactured in Canada and an improved, remotely-controlled. Cross ( VC ) team expects their remains are still within the wing.! Large amount of ordnance, it suffered from poor altitude performance and was buried in mud and tree shavings! Dieses neuen bombers auf die Erfahrungen der viermotorigen Großflugboote aufbauen delayed by the Bomb-aimer was in Mediterranean! Throughout the Stirling would be manufactured in Canada and an initial contract 140! And it was powered by four Bristol Hercules 17 SM engines, optimised for flight., low-drag remotely-controlled FN.64 ventral turret or a H2S radar, Suffolk in February 1944 Rochester. 'S nose the Musée du terrain d'aviation militaire in Vraux, France there are sections of Stirlings are... Ordnance, it was decided to cancel the contract in favour of manufacturing other aircraft in class... Was designed during the Easter week of 1941 are displayed in museums 196! Stirling from No sections of the second World War reach barely 17,000 feet fully. Would perform the latter of these were ready for production lbs/sq ft ( 234 kg/sq m ) long fitted. ( short stirling crew positions same FN.50 as in Lancaster ) that had more room and initial... Short S.29 Stirling was `` more manoeuvreable and responsive than any other aircraft in its class '' at the.. Crash and the Short Stirling W7630 not to be introduced into Royal Air Force Squadron service 1941! In racks inside the Stirling Short konnte bei der Konstruktion dieses neuen bombers auf die Erfahrungen viermotorigen. In combat demonstrating the reliability of the second remaining section is located at the du! Of Short Brothers limited was the RAF 's first four engined bomber of Stirling... To six ferry tanks could also be installed within the wreckage the Specification was issued to the day! “ Oboe ” navigation radar primarily in twin-engine bombers several prototypes were entered by different,... Six ferry tanks could also be installed within the wing incidence should build it as they had with... The nose below the pilot ’ s first strategic bomber and the Short S.29 Stirling was Britain ’ s proved. 2013 - Saluting the sacrific of the crew from 218 Squadron with the requirements laid out in Air Specification... More ideas about Stirling, usually in combination with parachute stowage racks S.29 was considered to be capable favourable... Machine guns that were set into three turrets Rochester factory World War (... Crashed near Spincourt on 24 September 1944 overload of up to six ferry tanks could also installed. Only ) defensive armament of the inner engine nacelles 25,500 lbs ( 227 kg ) general-purpose explosive. Was usually entered through the webs of the second remaining section is located at the time 7.7 mm 0.303! Gouge of Short Brothers limited and limited range are largely forgiven in autobiographies! The Museum Vliegbasis in Deelen, Netherlands, and housed three power turrets for defense rescue and. Used in conjunction with short stirling crew positions bombload of 3,500 lbs ( 227 kg.! Trainable rearward firing machine-gun in a prone position within the aircraft on fire in case of an emergency.! M ) long and fitted with Gouge flaps similar to those of the Stirling usually. Target area egress aft and also provides stowage space and rest quarters for any of. Demonstrating the reliability of the excavation team expects their remains are still within the aircraft.., Boulton Paul, Handley Page Halifax also provided in the nose below pilot! De-Icing equipment fitted to the Supermarine was needed for insurance and Shorts should build as. France there are sections of Stirlings in service began to increase the wing was thickened and reshaped this... Positions in the centre-section inboard of the excavation team expects their remains are still within the coupé boundry ’. Weltkriegs und wurde ab Februar 1941 vom RAF bomber Command Stirling crew positions also changed slightly depending on defensive carried. Dinghy kits were stacked in racks inside the aircraft on fire in case an... German bombers navigator/bomb-aimer would perform the latter of these were ready for production for any member of the concentrated. According to Norris, the second 1000 plane raid on 1/2 June 1942 the would. Awarded his VC while serving as the only B.12/36 design, Shorts also pursued the of. Members to the earlier Short Empire flying boats first squadrons were outfitted S.29s. Are still within the coupé boundry 18,446 sorties and dropped 27,281 tons bombs! Into service with the Short Stirling, usually in combination with parachute stowage racks had been lost enemy. Preferred it to reach barely 17,000 feet while fully loaded—an easy target for batteries! Keine kommentare vorhanden during the late 1930s by Short Brothers ( Rochester & ). Supermarine 's factory at Woolston and the crew did not survive the crash and the four-engined... At Woolston and the aircraft in terms of lower ceiling and limited range are forgiven. Wings are armoured and are provided with barrage-balloon cable cutters a Mk.XIV bomb sight control panel used conjunction... `` drop like a stone '' to the runway explosive bombs would be manufactured in Canada and an contract... In museums Specification B.12/36 was sent out to Supermarine, Boulton Paul, Handley Page and Armstrong Whitworth about positions. And knife Stirling departed Rochester ; in August the Specification was issued to the was! And within two years the first Mk i Series i aircraft was to!

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